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Male romantic partner (9)

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Falling in love comes at the cost of losing close friends, because romantic partners absorb time that would otherwise be invested in platonic relationships, researchers say. A new partner pushes out two close friends on average, leaving lovers with a smaller inner circle of people they can turn to in times of crisis, a study found. The research, led by Robin Dunbar , head of the Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology at Oxford University , showed that men and women were equally likely to lose their closest friends when they started a new relationship. Previous research by Dunbar's group has shown that people typically have five very close relationships — that is, people whom they would turn to if they were in emotional or financial trouble. Those who have romantic relationships, instead of having the typical five 'core set' of relationships only have four. And of those, one is the new person who's come into their life," said Dunbar.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: The 7 Most Unromantic Romantic Gestures (Matthew Hussey, Get The Guy)

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: In & Out (6/9) Movie CLIP - Know What You Need? (1997) HD

Here’s What People REALLY Want in a Romantic Partner

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The early stages of a new romantic relationship are characterized by intense feelings of euphoria, well-being, and preoccupation with the romantic partner. Neuroimaging research has linked those feelings to activation of reward systems in the human brain. The results of those studies may be relevant to pain management in humans, as basic animal research has shown that pharmacologic activation of reward systems can substantially reduce pain.

Indeed, viewing pictures of a romantic partner was recently demonstrated to reduce experimental thermal pain. We hypothesized that pain relief evoked by viewing pictures of a romantic partner would be associated with neural activations in reward-processing centers. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI study, we examined fifteen individuals in the first nine months of a new, romantic relationship.

Participants completed three tasks under periods of moderate and high thermal pain: 1 viewing pictures of their romantic partner, 2 viewing pictures of an equally attractive and familiar acquaintance, and 3 a word-association distraction task previously demonstrated to reduce pain.

The partner and distraction tasks both significantly reduced self-reported pain, although only the partner task was associated with activation of reward systems. Greater analgesia while viewing pictures of a romantic partner was associated with increased activity in several reward-processing regions, including the caudate head, nucleus accumbens, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex — regions not associated with distraction-induced analgesia.

The results suggest that the activation of neural reward systems via non-pharmacologic means can reduce the experience of pain. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: Dr. Younger was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Arthritis Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection or analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The early stages of a new, romantic relationship can be a powerful and absorbing experience. Individuals in new romantic relationships report feeling euphoric and energetic. They also become emotionally dependent on, desire closeness with, and have highly focused attention on their partner [1] — [6]. Human neuroimaging studies have shown that feelings experienced during the early stages of a romantic relationship are associated with neural activations in several reward-system and affect-processing regions of the brain [1] , [7] , [8].

Those studies displayed pictures of participants' own romantic partners [9] to reliably evoke acute positive affect and self-reported feelings of love. In one such functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI study, Aron and colleagues [1] instructed participants in new, romantic relationships to view pictures of their partner, and pictures of a familiar acquaintance who was the same age and sex as the participant's partner.

Neural activations specific to viewing pictures of the romantic partner were observed in several reward-processing regions, such as the bilateral caudate nucleus and right ventral tegmental area.

An earlier fMRI study using a similar protocol reported neural activations specific to the romantic partner pictures in reward regions such as the bilateral caudate nucleus and bilateral hippocampus [7]. The activation of reward structures caused by viewing pictures of a romantic partner has also been confirmed in a Chinese sample, suggesting the phenomenon may be culturally universal [8]. Collectively, these neuroimaging studies demonstrate that reward-system activation is a central component of self-reported feelings of love in new romantic relationships.

The engagement of reward systems by viewing pictures of a romantic partner is pertinent to the study of pain because several basic animal studies have shown reward-processing regions to be critically involved in analgesia [10]. For example, the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area two key reward processing structures both play an important role in analgesic processes [11] — [14] — perhaps explaining why pleasurable and appetitive states such as sucrose consumption and anticipation of food reward reduce pain [15].

The results of those studies suggest that the activation of reward systems perhaps even non-pharmacologically could reduce pain in humans. Indeed, a recent behavioral study demonstrated that the presentation of romantic partner pictures is sufficient to reduce experimentally-induced pain [16].

The partner pictures reduced pain significantly more than when participants viewed pictures of a stranger or affect-neutral object, and the analgesic benefit was as strong as holding the partner's hand. The study was important in that it showed a mere representation of a romantic partner can reduce pain; however, the study was not designed to characterize the central mechanisms related to reward-induced analgesia.

Given recent behavioral results suggesting an analgesic benefit of rewarding experiences, and neuroimaging data showing those experiences to produce reward system activation, we hypothesized that analgesia during evoked feelings of love would be associated with reward system activation.

Using fMRI of the human brain, we investigated the neurophysiologic substrates of analgesia produced by viewing pictures of a romantic partner. All participants described themselves as intensely in love, and scored a minimum sum of 90 on the 9-point scale, item short form of the Passionate Love Scale PLS [5].

All study procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board at the Stanford University School of Medicine, and all participants provided written informed consent.

Before arriving for the scan session, each participant provided three digital pictures of his or her romantic partner, and three pictures of an acquaintance of the same gender and attractiveness as the romantic partner. We sought to balance partner and acquaintance attractiveness because previous research has shown attractiveness to be associated with neural activations in reward areas [17].

Acquaintances were also individuals who the participants had known for approximately the same length of time as their partner and for whom the participant reported no romantic feelings. The attractiveness of both the romantic partners and acquaintances were rated independently on a 0—10 numerical scale by eight individuals who were blinded to the relationship type and who were not otherwise involved with the study.

All pictures were cropped to display only the face. At each participant's scan session, we first determined what temperature would produce moderate and high levels of pain. To determine temperatures used for moderate-pain and high-pain heat, participants were exposed to second heat blocks, starting at 40 degrees Celsius a non-painful temperature.

When in the scanner, the thermode was attached to the thenar eminence of the left hand, so that the right hand could be free for inputting pain ratings via a button box. While in the scanner, participants performed three distinct tasks: an acquaintance baseline condition, a romantic partner active condition, and a distraction control condition. In the acquaintance baseline condition, each participant was shown the pictures of his or her acquaintance via a projector and mirror display mounted on the head coil.

Following the protocol of Aron and colleagues [1] , participants were asked to focus on the picture and think about the displayed person.

The use of the active baseline condition allowed us to separate neural activity specific to viewing pictures of a romantic partner from those of simply looking at an equally attractive and familiar face. In the romantic partner condition, participants viewed pictures of their partner, and were asked to focus on the picture and think about the person.

Participants also underwent a distraction control condition. During the distraction trials, participants were asked to complete a word-association task that had been shown to effectively reduce pain in previous fMRI studies [18] , [19]. The distraction control condition allowed us to determine whether or not the partner pictures were simply serving as a salient distractor from pain. In the distraction trials, a seed phrase was displayed e.

The distraction task demands a high degree of attention, requires no movement, and is relatively free of an emotional component. Each of the three conditions described above was performed under periods of no pain, moderate pain, and high pain. Participants were told that a range of temperatures would be presented, and were not told that only three discreet temperatures would be administered. Each condition partner, acquaintance, and distraction by pain none, moderate, and high combination was repeated 6 times, for a total of 54 randomly ordered trials.

Following each trial, the participant rated his or her evoked pain, using the equipped button box and a projected visual analog scale. Pain ratings were collected immediately following rather than during the pain stimulus, so that task performance would be minimally affected by sensorimotor processing associated with rating pain on the response box. Following the pain rating, participants completed a mental arithmetic count-back task for 13 seconds. This task adapted from Aron and colleagues [1] was designed to minimize emotional and sensory carryover between trials.

In the task, participants were visually presented a 4-digit number, and were asked to count backwards by 7's as quickly and accurately as possible.

The task was also part of the study manipulation, as participants were told their performance on the task was a central component of the experiment. The time course of each trial was as follows: trial ready cue 2 sec , acquaintance, partner, or distraction task with thermal stimulus 16 sec , pain rating 10 sec , and count-back 13 sec. A single univariate ANOVA was performed to determine the effects of the partner and distraction tasks on self-reported pain.

Two independent variables were entered into the model: heat pain level no pain, moderate pain, and high pain , and condition acquaintance, partner, and distraction. Pain ratings were entered as the dependent variable. Pain ratings were averaged over trial repetitions to yield a single pain score per subject, for each temperature by condition combination — with subject treated as a random effect. After scanning was finished, participants completed a brief outtake form.

Functional volumes consisted of 28 oblique parallel to the AC-PC plane slices covering the brain and brainstem 4 mm thickness, 0. High-order shimming was performed before the functional scans [21]. Functional images were first corrected for cardiac and respiratory noise [22] , and then realigned, resliced, and smoothed by 6mm, using SPM8 Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, London. First-level statistics were performed on an individual level in native space.

Condition-specific effects were estimated using a general linear model GLM approach. Conditions were described with a boxcar design and then convolved with the canonical hemodynamic response function. All phases of the scan protocol cue, task, pain rating, and countback were modeled, though only the task periods were used in contrasts. Statistical results maps for all planned contrasts were coregistered with the high-resolution structural images, normalized to MNI space, and resampled at a 1 mm isotropic voxel size using the DARTEL toolbox in SPM8 [23].

The spatially-normalized contrast maps were then used to conduct second-level group statistics with participant as a random effect. A grey matter voxel mask was applied to all second-level contrast maps. Two major contrast analyses were performed. The first contrast identified neural activations and deactivations associated with viewing pictures of a romantic partner, while in pain, and controlling for both the effects of viewing pictures of an equally attractive acquaintance, and performing a distraction task.

A conjunction analysis approach was used, which requires all identified voxels to demonstrate greater increase or decrease in activity compared to both the acquaintance and distraction tasks. The second contrast identified neural regions associated with analgesia resulting from viewing pictures of a romantic partner, distinct from distraction analgesia. Analgesia pain reduction during the partner task was determined by subtracting pain ratings in the partner trials from pain ratings in the baseline acquaintance trials.

Degree of analgesia was also calculated for the distraction task, by subtracting pain in distraction trials from pain in the acquaintance trials. To determine the neural responses specific to analgesia caused by viewing pictures of a romantic partner, analgesia was entered as a covariate in the second-level analysis, yielding a contrast map of all BOLD increases and decreases significantly associated with pain relief.

The contrast map also masked out any significant BOLD responses associated with distraction analgesia, to identify only those analgesia responses specific to viewing pictures of a romantic partner. By reversing the distraction-analgesia mask, a separate map was also created to show analgesia-associated BOLD responses occurring in both the partner and distraction tasks.

All statistics were performed on the whole brain, with no region-of-interest or small-volume corrections. An FDR-corrected spatial extent threshold was not employed, because several reward and pain-modulatory nuclei have total structural volumes that are below FDR-corrected thresholds for the whole brain. Instead of an FDR correction, a spatial extent threshold of 64 contiguous voxels a 64 mm 3 region was used to allow smaller regions to emerge in a whole-brain analysis.

The use of combined height and spatial-extent thresholds in this manner has been demonstrated to provide a good balance between risk of Type I and Type II error [25]. However, even with the extent threshold we used, it is still possible that smaller reward structures or specific regions of reward structures would be too small to be identified.

Table 1 presents pain ratings for the three tasks acquaintance picture baseline, distraction control, and partner picture task , and three temperature levels no pain, moderate-pain, and high-pain.

Averaging across all acquaintance baseline trials, pain during the moderate-intensity trials was rated at 3. Because we were interested in neural mechanisms that generalize across pain levels, moderate- and high-intensity trials were aggregated for all neuroimaging analyses. To determine the possible role of demand characteristics on self-reported pain, responses to the manipulation check were examined. A response was counted as a correct guess if the participant identified pain as the dependent variable e.

Six out of the fifteen participants correctly guessed the purpose of the study. The first group contrast identified the main effects of the partner task on neural responses during periods of moderate- and high-intensity pain.

The price of love? Losing two of your closest friends

We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Participants were recruited at a large Southern public university in the United States and completed an online survey.

Romance is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards another person, and the courtship behaviors undertaken by an individual to express those overall feelings and resultant emotions. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Family Studies states that "Romantic love, based on the model of mutual attraction and on a connection between two people that bonds them as a couple, creates the conditions for overturning the model of family and marriage that it engenders.

Falling in love comes at the cost of losing close friends, because romantic partners absorb time that would otherwise be invested in platonic relationships, researchers say. A new partner pushes out two close friends on average, leaving lovers with a smaller inner circle of people they can turn to in times of crisis, a study found. The research, led by Robin Dunbar , head of the Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology at Oxford University , showed that men and women were equally likely to lose their closest friends when they started a new relationship. Previous research by Dunbar's group has shown that people typically have five very close relationships — that is, people whom they would turn to if they were in emotional or financial trouble. Those who have romantic relationships, instead of having the typical five 'core set' of relationships only have four.

Romance (love)

Either your web browser doesn't support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. Free to read. Dating is a normative behavior for youth, yet few studies have examined the relationship between romantic partner-seeking and sexual behavior among young men who have sex with men YMSM. We discuss the implications of our findings and conclude that there is a need to further examine romantic partner-seeking among YMSM. At present, many of those explorations take place over the Internet [ 4 , 5 ]. Having grown up with Internet-based communication as part of their daily social interactions, YMSM are more likely than older MSM [ 6 , 7 ] to use this technology to learn about their sexuality and to meet new partners [ 8 , 9 ], whether as a viable alternative to bars and clubs if underage or as a supplement to their offline socialization[ 10 ]. In contrast with face-to-face exchanges, the instant communication facilitated by the online environment may promote an increased expression of inhibited desires and a heightened sense of trust and intimacy [ 16 - 18 ]. Across numerous studies exploring the role of online communication in HIV transmission, researchers have noted that MSM who use the Internet to meet partners report higher levels of sexual risk behaviors e. This oversight is particularly troubling as MSM may have other motivations e.

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Bernardo J. This engaging, comprehensive introduction to the field of personality psychology integrates discussion of personality theories, research, assessment techniques, and applications of specific theories. The Psychology of Personality introduces students to many important figures in the field and covers both classic and contemporary issues and research. The second edition reflects significant changes in the field but retains many of the special features that made it a textbook from which instructors found easy to teach and students found easy to learn.

The early stages of a new romantic relationship are characterized by intense feelings of euphoria, well-being, and preoccupation with the romantic partner. Neuroimaging research has linked those feelings to activation of reward systems in the human brain.

Over half of the killings of American women are related to intimate partner violence, with the vast majority of the victims dying at the hands of a current or former romantic partner, according to a new report released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention today. The CDC analyzed the murders of women in 18 states from to , finding a total of 10, deaths. In 93 percent of those cases, the culprit was a current or former romantic partner.

The price of love? Losing two of your closest friends

Todd K. Shackelford , Viviana A. This text reviews and discusses the evolutionary psychological literature on violence, homicide, and war in humans and nonhumans, and in doing so we argue that an evolutionary perspective can substantially enhance our understanding of these behaviors.

Search for clues, synonyms, words, anagrams or if you already have some letters enter the letters here using a question mark or full-stop in place of any you don't know e. Definition of lover a person who loves someone or is loved by someone a significant other to whom you are not related by marriage. We've listed any clues from our database that match your search. There will also be a list of synonyms for your answer. The synonyms have been arranged depending on the number of charachters so that they're easy to find.

Nearly Half of All Murdered Women Are Killed by Romantic Partners

In the decade since the publication of the last edition, the study of reproductive physiology has undergone monumental changes. Chief among these advances are in the areas of stem cell development, signaling pathways, the role of inflammation in the regulatory processes in the various tissues, and the integration of new animal models which have led to a greater understanding of human disease. The new edition synthesizes all of this new information at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels of organization and present modern physiology a more understandable and comparative context. Tony M. Plant studied for his PhD with Dr. Richard P.

ROMANTIC PARTNER. 'ROMANTIC PARTNER' is a 15 letter phrase starting and ending with R. Crossword clues for 'ROMANTIC PARTNER' 9 letter words.

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ROMANTIC PARTNER

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Neural basis of romantic partners’ decisions about participation in leisure activity

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Comments: 2
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